파이썬 - 함수, 리스트, 튜플, 사전 본문

Tutorials/Python

파이썬 - 함수, 리스트, 튜플, 사전

머니덕 2019. 4. 23. 15:27

파이썬에서 까먹을 수 있는 자잘한 사항들을 리마인드하는 포스트입니다.

코드들은 automatetheboringstuff.com에서 참조했습니다.

먼저, syntax와 관련된 사항들을 복습하는 것이 우선이다.

주로 예제들을 통해 기억을 더듬어 보자.

• 쉘 예제들(가장 기초부터) :
``````>>> 'Alice' + 'Bob'
'AliceBob'

>>> 'Alice' + 42
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<pyshell#26>", line 1, in <module>
'Alice' + 42
TypeError: Can't convert 'int' object to str implicitly

>>> 'Alice' * 5
'AliceAliceAliceAliceAlice'

>>> 'Alice' * 'Bob'
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<pyshell#32>", line 1, in <module>
'Alice' * 'Bob'
TypeError: can't multiply sequence by non-int of type 'str'

>>> 'Alice' * 5.0
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<pyshell#33>", line 1, in <module>
'Alice' * 5.0
TypeError: can't multiply sequence by non-int of type 'float'

>>> len('hello')
5
>>> len('')
0

>>> print('I am ' + 29 + ' years old.')
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<pyshell#6>", line 1, in <module>
print('I am ' + 29 + ' years old.')
TypeError: Can't convert 'int' object to str implicitly

>>> str(29)
'29'

>>> print('I am ' + str(29) + ' years old.')
I am 29 years old.

>>> int(1.25)
1
>>> int(1.99)
1
>>> float('3.14')
3.14
>>> float(10)
10.0
>>> spam = input()
101

>>> spam
'101'
>>> 42 == '42'
False
>>> 42 == 42.0
True
>>> 42.0 == 0042.000
True
>>> spam = print('Hello!')
Hello!
>>> None == spam
True

>>> print('cats', 'dogs', 'mice')
cats dogs mice
>>> print('cats', 'dogs', 'mice', sep=',')
cats,dogs,mice

>>> ['cat', 'bat', 'rat', 'elephant']
['cat', 'bat', 'rat', 'elephant']
>>> ['hello', 3.1415, True, None, 42]
['hello', 3.1415, True, None, 42]

>>> spam = ['cat', 'bat', 'rat', 'elephant']
>>> spam
['cat', 'bat', 'rat', 'elephant']
>>> spam = ['cat', 'bat', 'rat', 'elephant']
>>> spam[-1]
'elephant'
>>> spam[-3]
'bat'

>>> spam = ['cat', 'bat', 'rat', 'elephant']
>>> spam[:2]
['cat', 'bat']
>>> spam[1:]
['bat', 'rat', 'elephant']
>>> spam[:]
['cat', 'bat', 'rat', 'elephant']

>>> spam = ['cat', 'dog', 'moose']
>>> len(spam)
3

>>> spam = ['cat', 'bat', 'rat', 'elephant']
>>> spam[1] = 'aardvark'
>>> spam
['cat', 'aardvark', 'rat', 'elephant']

>>> [1, 2, 3] + ['A', 'B', 'C']
[1, 2, 3, 'A', 'B', 'C']
>>> ['X', 'Y', 'Z'] * 3
['X', 'Y', 'Z', 'X', 'Y', 'Z', 'X', 'Y', 'Z']
>>> spam = ['cat', 'bat', 'rat', 'elephant']
>>> del spam[2]
>>> spam
['cat', 'bat', 'elephant']

>>> 'howdy' in ['hello', 'hi', 'howdy', 'heyas']
True
>>> spam = ['hello', 'hi', 'howdy', 'heyas']
>>> 'cat' in spam
False
>>> 'howdy' not in spam
False
>>> 'cat' not in spam
True

>>> cat = ['fat', 'orange', 'loud']
>>> size = cat[0]
>>> color = cat[1]
>>> disposition = cat[2]

>>> cat = ['fat', 'orange', 'loud']
>>> size, color, disposition = cat

>>> a, b = 'Alice', 'Bob'
>>> a, b = b, a
>>> print(a)
'Bob'
>>> print(b)
'Alice'

>>> spam = ['hello', 'hi', 'howdy', 'heyas']
>>> spam.index('hello')
0
>>> spam.index('heyas')
3

>>> spam = ['cat', 'dog', 'bat']
>>> spam.append('moose')
>>> spam
['cat', 'dog', 'bat', 'moose']

>>> spam = ['cat', 'dog', 'bat']
>>> spam.insert(1, 'chicken')
>>> spam
['cat', 'chicken', 'dog', 'bat']

>>> eggs = 'hello'
>>> eggs.append('world')
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<pyshell#19>", line 1, in <module>
eggs.append('world')
AttributeError: 'str' object has no attribute 'append'

>>> bacon = 42
>>> bacon.insert(1, 'world')
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<pyshell#22>", line 1, in <module>
bacon.insert(1, 'world')
AttributeError: 'int' object has no attribute 'insert'

>>> spam = ['cat', 'bat', 'rat', 'elephant']
>>> spam.remove('bat')
>>> spam
['cat', 'rat', 'elephant']

>>> spam = ['cat', 'bat', 'rat', 'cat', 'hat', 'cat']
>>> spam.remove('cat')
>>> spam
['bat', 'rat', 'cat', 'hat', 'cat']

>>> spam = [2, 5, 3.14, 1, -7]
>>> spam.sort()
>>> spam
[-7, 1, 2, 3.14, 5]
>>> spam = ['ants', 'cats', 'dogs', 'badgers', 'elephants']
>>> spam.sort()
>>> spam

>>> spam.sort(reverse=True)
>>> spam

>>> spam = [1, 3, 2, 4, 'Alice', 'Bob']
>>> spam.sort()
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<pyshell#70>", line 1, in <module>
spam.sort()
TypeError: unorderable types: str() < int()

>>> spam = ['a', 'z', 'A', 'Z']
>>> spam.sort(key=str.lower)
>>> spam
['a', 'A', 'z', 'Z']``````
• List is mutable

The list value in eggs isn’t being changed here; rather, an entirely new and different list value ([4, 5, 6]) is overwriting the old list value ([1, 2, 3]).

``````>>> eggs = [1, 2, 3]
>>> eggs = [4, 5, 6]
>>> eggs
[4, 5, 6]``````
• Tuple
``````>>> eggs = ('hello', 42, 0.5)
>>> eggs[0]
'hello'
>>> eggs[1:3]
(42, 0.5)
>>> len(eggs)
3``````
• List vs. Tuple

The main way that tuples are different from lists is that tuples, like strings, are immutable. Tuples cannot have their values modified, appended, or removed.

``````>>> eggs = ('hello', 42, 0.5)
>>> eggs[1] = 99
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<pyshell#5>", line 1, in <module>
eggs[1] = 99
TypeError: 'tuple' object does not support item assignment

>>> type(('hello',))
<class 'tuple'>
>>> type(('hello'))
<class 'str'>

>>> tuple(['cat', 'dog', 5])
('cat', 'dog', 5)
>>> list(('cat', 'dog', 5))
['cat', 'dog', 5]
>>> list('hello')
['h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o']``````
• Notice the difference python deals with references!
``````>>> spam = 42
>>> cheese = spam
>>> spam = 100
>>> spam
100
>>> cheese
42        # Only value is copied, like C.

>>> spam = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5]
>>> cheese = spam
>>> cheese[1] = 'Hello!'
>>> spam
[0, 'Hello!', 2, 3, 4, 5]
>>> cheese
[0, 'Hello!', 2, 3, 4, 5]``````
• copy() and deepcopy()

If the list you need to copy contains lists, then use the copy.deepcopy() function instead of copy.copy(). The deepcopy() function will copy these inner lists as well.

``````>>> import copy
>>> spam = ['A', 'B', 'C', 'D']
>>> cheese = copy.copy(spam)
>>> cheese[1] = 42
>>> spam
['A', 'B', 'C', 'D']
>>> cheese
['A', 42, 'C', 'D']``````
• The Dictionary Data Type
``````>>> myCat = {'size': 'fat', 'color': 'gray', 'disposition': 'loud'}

>>> myCat['size']
'fat'
>>> 'My cat has ' + myCat['color'] + ' fur.'
'My cat has gray fur.'``````
• Dictionaries vs. Lists

While the order of items matters for determining whether two lists are the same, it does not matter in what order the key-value pairs are typed in a dictionary.

``````>>> spam = ['cats', 'dogs', 'moose']
>>> bacon = ['dogs', 'moose', 'cats']
>>> spam == bacon
False
>>> eggs = {'name': 'Zophie', 'species': 'cat', 'age': '8'}
>>> ham = {'species': 'cat', 'age': '8', 'name': 'Zophie'}
>>> eggs == ham
True``````
• The keys(), values(), and items() Methods

There are three dictionary methods that will return list-like values of the dictionary’s keys, values, or both keys and values: keys(), values(), and items(). The values returned by these methods are not true lists: They cannot be modified and do not have an append() method. But these data types (dict_keys, dict_values, and dict_items, respectively) can be used in for loops.

``````>>> spam = {'color': 'red', 'age': 42}
>>> for v in spam.values():
print(v)

red
42

>>> for k in spam.keys():
print(k)

color
age

>>> for i in spam.items():
print(i)

('color', 'red')
('age', 42)``````

If you want a true list from one of these methods, pass its list-like return value to the list() function.

``````>>> spam = {'color': 'red', 'age': 42}
>>> spam.keys()
dict_keys(['color', 'age'])
>>> list(spam.keys())
['color', 'age']

>>> spam = {'color': 'red', 'age': 42}
>>> for k, v in spam.items():
print('Key: ' + k + ' Value: ' + str(v))``````
• The get() method

It’s tedious to check whether a key exists in a dictionary before accessing that key’s value. Fortunately, dictionaries have a get() method that takes two arguments: the key of the value to retrieve and a fallback value to return if that key does not exist.

``````>>> picnicItems = {'apples': 5, 'cups': 2}
>>> 'I am bringing ' + str(picnicItems.get('cups', 0)) + ' cups.'
'I am bringing 2 cups.'
>>> 'I am bringing ' + str(picnicItems.get('eggs', 0)) + ' eggs.'
'I am bringing 0 eggs.'``````

Because there is no 'eggs' key in the picnicItems dictionary, the default value 0 is returned by the get() method. Without using get(), the code would have caused an error message, such as in the following example:

``````>>> picnicItems = {'apples': 5, 'cups': 2}
>>> 'I am bringing ' + str(picnicItems['eggs']) + ' eggs.'
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<pyshell#34>", line 1, in <module>
'I am bringing ' + str(picnicItems['eggs']) + ' eggs.'
KeyError: 'eggs'``````
• The setdefault() Method

You’ll often have to set a value in a dictionary for a certain key only if that key does not already have a value. The code looks something like this:

``````spam = {'name': 'Pooka', 'age': 5}
if 'color' not in spam:
spam['color'] = 'black'``````

The setdefault() method offers a way to do this in one line of code. The first argument passed to the method is the key to check for, and the second argument is the value to set at that key if the key does not exist. If the key does exist, the setdefault() method returns the key’s value. Enter the following into the interactive shell:

``````>>> spam = {'name': 'Pooka', 'age': 5}
>>> spam.setdefault('color', 'black')
'black'
>>> spam
{'color': 'black', 'age': 5, 'name': 'Pooka'}
>>> spam.setdefault('color', 'white')
'black'
>>> spam
{'color': 'black', 'age': 5, 'name': 'Pooka'}``````

예제 프로그램들도 같이 살펴보자 :

• input()을 이용해 사용자 인풋 받기
``````# This program says hello and asks for my name.

print('Hello world!')

myName = input()

print('It is good to meet you, ' + myName)
print('The length of your name is:')
print(len(myName))

myAge = input()

print('You will be ' + str(int(myAge) + 1) + ' in a year.')``````
• Random integer
``````r = random.randint(1, 9)
print(fortune)
# print single int from 1~9 randomly``````
• 프린트 기능들
``````print('Hello', end='')
print('World')
# output : HelloWorld``````
• Global variable
``````def spam():
global eggs
eggs = 'spam' # this is the global

def bacon():
eggs = 'bacon' # this is a local
def ham():
print(eggs) # this is the global

eggs = 42 # this is the global
spam()
print(eggs)``````
• List example code
``````catNames = []
while True:
print('Enter the name of cat ' + str(len(catNames) + 1) +
' (Or enter nothing to stop.):')
name = input()
if name == '':
break
catNames = catNames + [name] # list concatenation
print('The cat names are:')
for name in catNames:
print('  ' + name)``````
• List example code 2
``````myPets = ['Zophie', 'Pooka', 'Fat-tail']
print('Enter a pet name:')
name = input()
if name not in myPets:
print('I do not have a pet named ' + name)
else:
print(name + ' is my pet.')``````
• setdefault example
``````message = 'It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen.'
count = {}

for character in message:
count.setdefault(character, 0)
count[character] = count[character] + 1

print(count)``````
• Pretty Printing

If you import the pprint module into your programs, you’ll have access to the pprint() and pformat() functions that will “pretty print” a dictionary’s values. This is helpful when you want a cleaner display of the items in a dictionary than what print() provides. Modify the previous characterCount.py program and save it as prettyCharacterCount.py.

``````import pprint
message = 'It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking
thirteen.'
count = {}

for character in message:
count.setdefault(character, 0)
count[character] = count[character] + 1

pprint.pprint(count)``````
• Nested Dictionaries and Lists
``````allGuests = {'Alice': {'apples': 5, 'pretzels': 12},
'Bob': {'ham sandwiches': 3, 'apples': 2},
'Carol': {'cups': 3, 'apple pies': 1}}

def totalBrought(guests, item):
numBrought = 0
for k, v in guests.items():
numBrought = numBrought + v.get(item, 0)
return numBrought

print('Number of things being brought:')
print(' - Apples         ' + str(totalBrought(allGuests, 'apples')))
print(' - Cups           ' + str(totalBrought(allGuests, 'cups')))
print(' - Cakes          ' + str(totalBrought(allGuests, 'cakes')))
print(' - Ham Sandwiches ' + str(totalBrought(allGuests, 'ham sandwiches')))
print(' - Apple Pies     ' + str(totalBrought(allGuests, 'apple pies')))``````

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