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파이썬 - 스트링, Regex 본문

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파이썬 - 스트링, Regex

hashnut 2019. 4. 23. 15:31

파이썬에서 까먹을 수 있는 자잘한 사항들을 리마인드하는 포스트입니다.

코드들은 automatetheboringstuff.com에서 참조했습니다.


 

쉘 예제

  • Raw Strings

A raw string completely ignores all escape characters and prints any backslash that appears in the string.

>>> print(r'That is Carol\'s cat.')
That is Carol\'s cat.
  • Slicing strings
>>> spam = 'Hello world!'
>>> spam[0]
'H'
>>> spam[4]
'o'
>>> spam[-1]
'!'
>>> spam[0:5]
'Hello'
>>> spam[:5]
'Hello'
>>> spam[6:]
'world!'

>>> spam = 'Hello world!'
>>> fizz = spam[0:5]
>>> fizz
'Hello'
  • The in and not in Operators with Strings
>>> 'Hello' in 'Hello World'
True
>>> 'Hello' in 'Hello'
True
>>> 'HELLO' in 'Hello World'
False
>>> '' in 'spam'
True
>>> 'cats' not in 'cats and dogs'
False
  • The upper(), lower(), isupper(), and islower() String Methods
>>> spam = 'Hello world!'
>>> spam = spam.upper()
>>> spam
'HELLO WORLD!'
>>> spam = spam.lower()
>>> spam
'hello world!'

>>> spam = 'Hello world!'
>>> spam.islower()
False
>>> spam.isupper()
False
>>> 'HELLO'.isupper()
True
>>> 'abc12345'.islower()
True
>>> '12345'.islower()
False
>>> '12345'.isupper()
False
  • The isX String Methods

isalpha() returns True if the string consists only of letters and is not blank.

isalnum() returns True if the string consists only of letters and numbers and is not blank.

isdecimal() returns True if the string consists only of numeric characters and is not blank.

isspace() returns True if the string consists only of spaces, tabs, and new-lines and is not blank.

istitle() returns True if the string consists only of words that begin with an uppercase letter followed by only lowercase letters.

>>> 'hello'.isalpha()
True
>>> 'hello123'.isalpha()
False
>>> 'hello123'.isalnum()
True
>>> 'hello'.isalnum()
True
>>> '123'.isdecimal()
True
>>> '    '.isspace()
True
>>> 'This Is Title Case'.istitle()
True
>>> 'This Is Title Case 123'.istitle()
True
>>> 'This Is not Title Case'.istitle()
False
>>> 'This Is NOT Title Case Either'.istitle()
False
  • The startswith() and endswith() String Methods
>>> 'Hello world!'.startswith('Hello')
True
>>> 'Hello world!'.endswith('world!')
True
>>> 'abc123'.startswith('abcdef')
False
>>> 'abc123'.endswith('12')
False
>>> 'Hello world!'.startswith('Hello world!')
True
>>> 'Hello world!'.endswith('Hello world!')
True
  • The join() and split() String Methods

Remember that join() is called on a string value and is passed a list value. (It’s easy to accidentally call it the other way around.) The split() method does the opposite: It’s called on a string value and returns a list of strings.

>>> ', '.join(['cats', 'rats', 'bats'])
'cats, rats, bats'
>>> ' '.join(['My', 'name', 'is', 'Simon'])
'My name is Simon'
>>> 'ABC'.join(['My', 'name', 'is', 'Simon'])
'MyABCnameABCisABCSimon'

>>> 'My name is Simon'.split()
['My', 'name', 'is', 'Simon']

>>> spam = '''Dear Alice,
How have you been? I am fine.
There is a container in the fridge
that is labeled "Milk Experiment".

Please do not drink it.
Sincerely,
Bob'''
>>> spam.split('\n')
['Dear Alice,', 'How have you been? I am fine.', 'There is a container in the
fridge', 'that is labeled "Milk Experiment".', '', 'Please do not drink it.',
'Sincerely,', 'Bob']
  • Justifying Text with rjust(), ljust(), and center()
>>> 'Hello'.rjust(10)
'     Hello'
>>> 'Hello'.rjust(20)
'               Hello'
>>> 'Hello World'.rjust(20)
'         Hello World'
>>> 'Hello'.ljust(10)
'Hello     '

>>> 'Hello'.rjust(20, '*')
'***************Hello'
>>> 'Hello'.ljust(20, '-')
'Hello---------------'

>>> 'Hello'.center(20)
'       Hello       '
>>> 'Hello'.center(20, '=')
'=======Hello========'
  • Removing Whitespace with strip(), rstrip(), and lstrip()

The strip() string method will return a new string without any whitespace characters at the beginning or end. The lstrip() and rstrip() methods will remove whitespace characters from the left and right ends, respectively.

>>> spam = '    Hello World     '
>>> spam.strip()
'Hello World'
>>> spam.lstrip()
'Hello World '
>>> spam.rstrip()
'    Hello World'

Optionally, a string argument will specify which characters on the ends should be stripped.

>>> spam = 'SpamSpamBaconSpamEggsSpamSpam'
>>> spam.strip('ampS')
'BaconSpamEggs'

Passing strip() the argument 'ampS' will tell it to strip occurences of a, m, p, and capital S from the ends of the string stored in spam.

  • Copying and Pasting Strings with the pyperclip Module

The pyperclip module has copy() and paste() functions that can send text to and receive text from your computer’s clipboard. Sending the output of your program to the clipboard will make it easy to paste it to an email, word processor, or some other software.

>>> import pyperclip
>>> pyperclip.copy('Hello world!')
>>> pyperclip.paste()
'Hello world!'

Of course, if something outside of your program changes the clipboard contents, the paste() function will return it. For example, if I copied this sentence to the clipboard and then called paste(), it would look like this:

>>> pyperclip.paste()
'For example, if I copied this sentence to the clipboard and then called
paste(), it would look like this:'
  • Matching Regex Objects

A Regex object’s search() method searches the string it is passed for any matches to the regex. The search() method will return None if the regex pattern is not found in the string. If the pattern is found, the search() method returns a Match object. Match objects have a group() method that will return the actual matched text from the searched string.

>>> import re
>>> phoneNumRegex = re.compile(r'\d\d\d-\d\d\d-\d\d\d\d')
>>> mo = phoneNumRegex.search('My number is 415-555-4242.')
>>> print('Phone number found: ' + mo.group())
Phone number found: 415-555-4242
  • Grouping with Parentheses

Say you want to separate the area code from the rest of the phone number. Adding parentheses will create groups in the regex: (\d\d\d)-(\d\d\d-\d\d\d\d). Then you can use the group() match object method to grab the matching text from just one group.

The first set of parentheses in a regex string will be group 1. The second set will be group 2. By passing the integer 1 or 2 to the group() match object method, you can grab different parts of the matched text. Passing 0 or nothing to the group() method will return the entire matched text.

>>> phoneNumRegex = re.compile(r'(\d\d\d)-(\d\d\d-\d\d\d\d)')
>>> mo = phoneNumRegex.search('My number is 415-555-4242.')
>>> mo.group(1)
'415'
>>> mo.group(2)
'555-4242'
>>> mo.group(0)
'415-555-4242'
>>> mo.group()
'415-555-4242'
  • Regex seperation

You can also use the pipe to match one of several patterns as part of your regex. For example, say you wanted to match any of the strings 'Batman', 'Batmobile', 'Batcopter', and 'Batbat'. Since all these strings start with Bat, it would be nice if you could specify that prefix only once. This can be done with parentheses.

>>> batRegex = re.compile(r'Bat(man|mobile|copter|bat)')
>>> mo = batRegex.search('Batmobile lost a wheel')
>>> mo.group()
'Batmobile'
>>> mo.group(1)
'mobile'
  • Other regex features(?, +, { }, * )

The ? character flags the group that precedes it as an optional part of the pattern.

>>> batRegex = re.compile(r'Bat(wo)?man')
>>> mo1 = batRegex.search('The Adventures of Batman')
>>> mo1.group()
'Batman'

>>> mo2 = batRegex.search('The Adventures of Batwoman')
>>> mo2.group()
'Batwoman'
>>> phoneRegex = re.compile(r'(\d\d\d-)?\d\d\d-\d\d\d\d')
>>> mo1 = phoneRegex.search('My number is 415-555-4242')
>>> mo1.group()
'415-555-4242'

>>> mo2 = phoneRegex.search('My number is 555-4242')
>>> mo2.group()

The * (called the star or asterisk) means “match zero or more”—the group that precedes the star can occur any number of times in the text. It can be completely absent or repeated over and over again.

>>> batRegex = re.compile(r'Bat(wo)*man')
>>> mo1 = batRegex.search('The Adventures of Batman')
>>> mo1.group()
'Batman'

>>> mo2 = batRegex.search('The Adventures of Batwoman')
>>> mo2.group()
'Batwoman'

>>> mo3 = batRegex.search('The Adventures of Batwowowowoman')
>>> mo3.group()
'Batwowowowoman'

If you have a group that you want to repeat a specific number of times, follow the group in your regex with a number in curly brackets. For example, the regex (Ha){3} will match the string 'HaHaHa', but it will not match 'HaHa', since the latter has only two repeats of the (Ha) group.

>>> haRegex = re.compile(r'(Ha){3}')
>>> mo1 = haRegex.search('HaHaHa')
>>> mo1.group()
'HaHaHa'

>>> mo2 = haRegex.search('Ha')
>>> mo2 == None
True
  • Greedy and Nongreedy Matching

Since (Ha){3,5} can match three, four, or five instances of Ha in the string 'HaHaHaHaHa', you may wonder why the Match object’s call to group() in the previous curly bracket example returns 'HaHaHaHaHa' instead of the shorter possibilities. After all, 'HaHaHa' and 'HaHaHaHa' are also valid matches of the regular expression (Ha){3,5}.

Python’s regular expressions are greedy by default, which means that in ambiguous situations they will match the longest string possible. The non-greedy version of the curly brackets, which matches the shortest string possible, has the closing curly bracket followed by a question mark.

>>> greedyHaRegex = re.compile(r'(Ha){3,5}')
>>> mo1 = greedyHaRegex.search('HaHaHaHaHa')
>>> mo1.group()
'HaHaHaHaHa'

>>> nongreedyHaRegex = re.compile(r'(Ha){3,5}?')
>>> mo2 = nongreedyHaRegex.search('HaHaHaHaHa')
>>> mo2.group()
'HaHaHa'
  • The findall() Method

While search() will return a Match object of the first matched text in the searched string, the findall() method will return the strings of every match in the searched string.

>>> phoneNumRegex = re.compile(r'\d\d\d-\d\d\d-\d\d\d\d')
>>> mo = phoneNumRegex.search('Cell: 415-555-9999 Work: 212-555-0000')
>>> mo.group()
'415-555-9999'

>>> phoneNumRegex = re.compile(r'\d\d\d-\d\d\d-\d\d\d\d') # has no groups
>>> phoneNumRegex.findall('Cell: 415-555-9999 Work: 212-555-0000')
['415-555-9999', '212-555-0000']

If there are groups in the regular expression, then findall() will return a list of tuples. Each tuple represents a found match, and its items are the matched strings for each group in the regex.

>>> phoneNumRegex = re.compile(r'(\d\d\d)-(\d\d\d)-(\d\d\d\d)') # has groups
>>> phoneNumRegex.findall('Cell: 415-555-9999 Work: 212-555-0000')
[('415', '555', '9999'), ('212', '555', '0000')]
  • Review of Regex Symbols

The ? matches zero or one of the preceding group.

The * matches zero or more of the preceding group.

The + matches one or more of the preceding group.

The {n} matches exactly n of the preceding group.

The {n,} matches n or more of the preceding group.

The {,m} matches 0 to m of the preceding group.

The {n,m} matches at least n and at most m of the preceding group.

{n,m}? or *? or +? performs a nongreedy match of the preceding group.

^spam means the string must begin with spam.

spam$ means the string must end with spam.

The . matches any character, except newline characters.

\d, \w, and \s match a digit, word, or space character, respectively.

\D, \W, and \S match anything except a digit, word, or space character, respectively.

[abc] matches any character between the brackets (such as a, b, or c).

[^abc] matches any character that isn’t between the brackets.

  • Substituting Strings with the sub() Method
>>> namesRegex = re.compile(r'Agent \w+')
>>> namesRegex.sub('CENSORED', 'Agent Alice gave the secret documents to Agent Bob.')
'CENSORED gave the secret documents to CENSORED.'

>>> agentNamesRegex = re.compile(r'Agent (\w)\w*')
>>> agentNamesRegex.sub(r'\1****', 'Agent Alice told Agent Carol that Agent
Eve knew Agent Bob was a double agent.')
A**** told C**** that E**** knew B**** was a double agent.'

프로그램 예제

  • Multiline Strings with Triple Quotes
print('''Dear Alice,

Eve's cat has been arrested for catnapping, cat burglary, and extortion.

Sincerely,
Bob''')

Output looks like this.

Dear Alice,

Eve's cat has been arrested for catnapping, cat burglary, and extortion.

Sincerely,
Bob
  • Multiline comments

Use """ comment """ syntax.

def spam():
    """This is a multiline comment to help
    explain what the spam() function does."""
    print('Hello!')
  • Justifying text with rjust(), ljust(), and center()
def printPicnic(itemsDict, leftWidth, rightWidth):
    print('PICNIC ITEMS'.center(leftWidth + rightWidth, '-'))
    for k, v in itemsDict.items():
        print(k.ljust(leftWidth, '.') + str(v).rjust(rightWidth))
picnicItems = {'sandwiches': 4, 'apples': 12, 'cups': 4, 'cookies': 8000}
printPicnic(picnicItems, 12, 5)
printPicnic(picnicItems, 20, 6)
  • Paste password to clipboard using pyperclip module
#! python3
# pw.py - An insecure password locker program.

PASSWORDS = {'email': 'F7minlBDDuvMJuxESSKHFhTxFtjVB6',
             'blog': 'VmALvQyKAxiVH5G8v01if1MLZF3sdt',
             'luggage': '12345'}

import sys
if len(sys.argv) < 2:
    print('Usage: python pw.py [account] - copy account password')
    sys.exit()

account = sys.argv[1]      # first command line arg is the account name

Run this program with cmd, and type command line such as "py -3 pw.py email".

 

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